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miércoles, 9 de abril de 2014

Tiempos Verbales: Presente y Pasado Simple



Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
Ministerio de la Defensa
Universidad Nacional Experimental Politécnica de la Fuerza Armada
Básico de Ingeniería
Inglés I
Licda. Julie Landaez
Simple Present - Presente Simple
El Presente Simple es utilizado para hablar acerca de hechos, cosas que ocurren una y otra vez, acuerdos o eventos programados, acciones n el presente seguidas por otras e instrucciones. Ej.
I live in Kenya.
The sun rises in the East.

A fact.
He watches TV every night.
Happen again and again.
The plane flies to London every Monday.
fixed arrangements, scheduled events
First I get up, then I have breakfast.
Actions in the present - one follows after the other
Open your books at page 34.
Instructions
En oraciones afirmativas, se utiliza la forma simple del verbo con I, you, we, they. Ej.
We live en Redmond.
They have a house in Seattle.
A los verbos que terminen en “o” después de una consonante se les agrega –es al infinitivo; ejemplo:
I go - he goes
I do - he does
A los verbos que terminen en “ch, sh, s, x o z” se les agrega –es a la forma infinitiva; ejemplo:
I watch - he watches
I crash – he crashes
I pass - he passes
I fix – he fixes
I buzz – he buzzes
A los verbos que terminan en –y se les agrega –s cuando son precedidos por una vocal (a, e, i, o, u). ejemplo:
                                               I play - he plays
A los verbos que terminan en –y precedidos por una consonante, la  –y cambia a 'ies'. Ejemplo:
                                                I hurry - he hurries
Para formar oraciones negativas, se utiliza el auxiliar do not o does not  más la forma base del verbo. Usualmente, la forma negativa del auxiliar puede ser contraida como don’t o doesn’t  de manera informal. Ej.
He does not read a book.
She does not watch TV at night.
They do not do her homework after class.
He doesn’t read a book.
She doesn’t watch TV at night.
They don’t do her homework after class.
Para realizar preguntas se utilizan los auxiliares Do y Does al principio de las mismas; estos auxiliares solo se utilizan en preguntas y oraciones NEGATIVAS nunca en la forma positiva de la oración. Cuando utilizamos el auxiliar Do el verbo permanece en su forma base. Ahora, cuando utilizamos el auxiliar Does al verbo se le quita la –es y se deja en su forma simple.
             Do I/we/you/they play football?                 Does he/she/it play football?
Adverbios de Frecuencia
Los adverbios de frecuencia denotan cuan frecuente pasa algo. Loas adverbios de frecuencia, usualmente preceden a los verbos en una oración; a excepción del verbo to be donde los mismos deben ser ubicados después del verbo.
  Always     Usually    Often     Sometimes      Rarely       never
  ____________________________________________________
   100% of the time                                                              0% of the time

Otros verbos
Verbo “be”
He usually goes to a fast-food place.
It always rains on weekends.
I’m usually tired in the morning.
The food at that restaurant is never very good.
Los adverbios usually y sometimes también  pueden ser colocados al principio o al final de una oración. Ej.
I usually get up at 6 o’clock.
Usually I get up at 6 o’clock.
I get up at 6 o’clock, usually.
I sometimes skip breakfast.
Sometimes I skip breakfast.
I skip breakfast, sometimes.

Pasado simple

El pasado simple es usado para:

¨     Una acción terminada en el pasado:
I visited Berlin last week.
Andrew watched TV yesterday.

¨     Serie de acciones completadas en el pasado:
First I got up, then I had breakfast.

¨     Junto con el pasado progresivo (El pasado simple interrumpió la acción que estaba en progreso)
They were playing cards when the telephone rang.
1st action: Past Progressive were playing
2nd action: Simple Past rang

Palabras claves del pasado simple

Las palabras claves indican cual tiempo utilizar. Para el pasado simple utiliza las siguientes expresiones:

Yesterday          A month ago       Last week     In 2002

Oraciones afirmativas:

Se utiliza la misma forma del verbo todo el tiempo sin importar el sujeto.

regular verbs
irregular verbs
I played football.
I went to the supermarket.

Oraciones negativas:

Se utiliza el auxiliar did (pasado simple de do) todo el tiempo sin importar el sujeto.

regular verbs
irregular verbs
I did not play football.
I did not go to the supermarket.

regular verbs
irregular verbs
I didn't play football.
I didn't go to the supermarket.

Preguntas:

Se utiliza el auxiliar did (pasado simple de do) todo el tiempo sin importar el sujeto

regular verbs
irregular verbs
Did you play football?
Did I go to the supermarket?


EXERCISES

Simple Present / Present Continuous

1. - Use the word in parentheses to complete the text with the appropriate tenses


a. Every Monday, Sally (drive) _________drives_____________ her kids to football practice.

b. Usually, I (work) ____________________as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) _______________________French at a language school in Paris.

c. Shhhhh! be quiet! John (sleep)__________________________________.

d. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always)_____________________________.

e. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) _____________________because everybody (talk)________________________ so loudly.

f. A: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?
    B: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) _______________________to a movie tonight with some friends.

Simple Past / Past Continuous
2. - Use the word in parentheses to complete the text with the appropriate tenses

a. A: What (you, do) _______were you doing_____________ when the accident occurred?
B: I (try) __________________________________to change a light bulb that had burnt out.

b. After I (find) _______________________the wallet full of money, I (go, immediately) __________________to the police and (turn) _________________________it in.

c. The doctor (say) __________________________that Tom (be) ____________________too sick to go to work and that he (need) ________________________to stay at home for a couple of days.

e. Sandy is in the living room watching television. At this time yesterday, she (watch, also) _________________________________television. That's all she ever does!


3.- Use the verbs given to create affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences in Simple Present.
Alice shows her hat.
Alice does not show her hat.
 Does Alice show her hat?

walk      run      clean     work

   travel     break     study        be

 4. - Change the sentences to Simple Past (affirmative and negative form).

Alice showed her hat.
Alice did not show her hat.
  1. The Parkers spend the summer in the Caribbean islands.
___________________________________________________
  1. A lot of people suffer from stress.
___________________________________________________
  1. Peter smokes a cigar after having lunch.
___________________________________________________
  1. The dress looks terrible.
___________________________________________________
  1. It snows a lot in Sweden.
___________________________________________________
  1. Tom visits his father every Fridays.
___________________________________________________
  1. Stella returns to the office at 12:30.
___________________________________________________
  1. William washes his car every morning.
___________________________________________________
  1. Water freezes at 0º C.
___________________________________________________
  1. At 12:00 my mother takes an hour for lunch.
___________________________________________________